What is a Linux distribution

Is a collection of components that form a Linux system:
  1. Linux kernel and drivers
  2. Kernel connects application layer to the hardware. It is like an engine for a car. it’s job is to manage the low level functions of an OS, such as memory management, process handling, I/O, low-level networking and any other tasks that require direct communication with the hardware. In this low level abstraction process all system calls are made to the kernel. For Linux everything is a file. For instance hardware is mapped by a file hierarchy via /dev and /sys and process information is found at /proc
  3. GNU coreutils and util-linux
  4. Are basic file, shell and text manipulation foundation utilities that are expected to exist on every Linux distribution. Examples: pwd, ls cat, more, less, cut, fsck, cp, dd, tail etc. Earlier, these tools were packaged as fileutils, extutils, shellutils, but recently, they are known as a single package - coreutils. Also, it is additional software package - util-linux, distributed by the Linux Kernel Organization for use as part of the Linux operating system
  5. Additional software, libraries and documentation
  6. Like bootloader - software that manages boot process, daemons or background services; init system - subsystem that controls the daemons; package management system etc.
  7. A window system (optional) - graphical server, most common being the X Server
  8. Is the display server for X Windows System: a framework for the GUI environment. X is architecture agnostic framework for remote GUIs and input devices. X Server is designed to be used over network connections. As X clients may be applications such as browser and terminal.
  9. GUI (optional)
  10. GUI is often referred to as Desktop Environment like KDE, Gnome, Unity, Cinnamon, LXDE, LXQT, MATE, Xfce.
  11. Applications
  12. Thousands of software titles that can be found and installed by package manager or compiled from sources